“Slow Onboarding and Knowledge Loss: When new employees are hired, there is often a steep learning curve, requiring numerous hours of coaching, training and shadowing veteran employees. However, many companies do not have the internal resources to properly train and onboard individuals, increasing the likelihood of operational errors, unapproved work-arounds and more. Alternatively, when organizations lose top talent to a competitor or retirement, those years of experience walk out the door with them. Depending on the existing management protocol, both can impact the efficiency and productivity level of an entire company.”, https://domainmarketresearch.com/?p=4017
Russia: The Impact of Knowledge Loss
“While external knowledge loss of active Russian scientists and engineers has been limited during the past decade to 1,000-2,000 specialists per year, there has been a massive internal drain of technical talent away from R&D facilities into maintenance shops, commercial trading organizations, and other activities distant from their technical training and experience. Among the emigres, however, have been a few internationally known scientists and a significant number of highly talented young engineers. The impact of emigration on Russian research capabilities in a few specialties has been devastating, while the internal flight of specialists has been felt in almost all specialties. In addition to these traditional concepts of external and internal knowledge loss, new forms of knowledge loss have included the propensity of Russian scientists to publish reports in foreign journals that local colleagues can no longer afford and the hiring by foreign firms of top talent that remains in the country but must treat all discoveries as industrial secrets.
Most Russian specialists who come to the United States as emigres do not find positions in science, with the most successful using their language and entrepreneurial skills to find jobs in commerce. However, about 50 percent of Russian scientists and engineers who come to the United States as long-term (more than three months) exchange visitors or temporary skilled workers end up staying here, usually working in technical areas. During the past several years, a large number of computer software specialists have found permanent employment in the United States through this route.
The knowledge loss is rooted in the economic crisis that has dramatically reduced government funds available to support scientific activities and has forced industrial organizations to focus on meeting immediate financial requirements rather than making commitments to research activities with deferred payrolls. Thus, there has been a rapid decline in salaries in almost all sectors of the economy, much equipment is obsolete, and many research facilities are no longer operative. A few centers of excellence have survived, usually with the assistance of grants or contracts from abroad.
In 1992 there were about 900,000 active researchers in Russia. At present, 450,000 specialists are formally classified as researchers, but only about 100,000 spend more than one-half their time investigating unexplored terrain or developing new or improved techniques. While most of the remainder might like to continue their careers, they no longer have the supplies, facilities, and incentives to conduct serious research. Also, science and technology are no longer respected professions as in past decades.
About 60,000 scientists, engineers, and technicians have unique skills and experience that could be of interest to developing countries attempting to achieve advanced technology weapons capabilities. About 30,000 of them are in the aerospace sector, 20,000 in the nuclear sector, and 10,000 in the chemical and biological sector. An estimated one-third are no longer affiliated with defense-oriented institutions, having either retired or moved on to other careers; another one-third are continuing to devote the bulk of their time to military-related activities, and the final one-third is attempting to convert weapons-related skills to programs with civilian applications.
The future continues to look bleak although there has been an upswing in enrollment of university-level students in the science and engineering faculties throughout the country. The employment outlook for graduates is not good, and most graduates are attracted to the commercial sector. The situation is very serious in the applied sciences since the very best qualified specialists may be hired by foreign firms–often with overseas employment in mind–while the less fortunate are left to find other paying jobs that are very scarce in the science and technology sector. The aging of the work force is a major problem; the pension payments are so low that there is little incentive to retire and make way for an influx of new talent at technical institutions. On the positive side, many former weapons scientists are losing touch with defense developments. Although from the technical point of view they are becoming less of a proliferation concern, from the economic perspective they may become increasingly interested in foreign contract opportunities. They simply see no hope of early economic revival in Russia. Foreign contracts and grants, particularly those of longer duration, are very important in reducing the likelihood of expertise to states with hostile intentions.
If the Russian economy improves, in time the knowledge loss may slowly turn around. The likelihood that Russians currently working abroad could be enticed to return to Russia or would even be accepted by those who have stayed behind seems low, however.” Adapted from: National Intelligence Council Russia’s Physical and Social Infrastructure: Implications for Future Development